In humid conditions, bones might be broken down in a matter of a decade or so, but in a dry climate, it could take thousands of years! Bones do decay, just at a slower rate than other types of organic material and tissue
When someone passes away, one of the most common phrases spoken at the ceremony or funeral is “Ashes to ashes, dust to dust”. In that context, the phrase is meant to suggest that our bodies come from the earth, and will eventually return to it. It’s a sentiment that explains the circle of life, and helps people cope with the pain of loss and death.
However, that phrase isn’t entirely true…”Dust to dust” suggests that our bodies completely disappear, but that isn’t always the case. Sometimes, bones are found buried in the earth that have been there for thousands of years!
So, although flesh and tissue tends to break down rather quickly, bones have an impressive ability to stick around. As it turns out, this subject is a bit more complicated than it appears at first glance, and is actually quite fascinating once you “dig” a bit deeper.
As with most mysteries in science, there isn’t just one answer to this particular answer. As it turns out, bones decay at varying rates, and some don’t decay at all! To properly understand the variability of bones in human and animal bodies, a bit of background on the process of decomposition can be quite helpful.
Decomposition happens to all organic matter, and while every organism breaks down in a different way, the basic concept is the same. In order to recycle organic matter, chemical processes break down organisms into simpler forms that can be absorbed and reused within the biome. This affects everything that is considered “living”, from trees and badgers to kings and paupers.
Bodies can be broken down in two main ways: by chemical/physical processes, or by other living organisms breaking down the living tissue. The rate of decomposition depends on many factors, including temperature, humidity, insect presence, exposure to air, acidity of the soil, and dozens of other variables. A human body could lose all of its flesh and tissue in as little as a week, or it could remain in place for thousands of years! It all depends on the conditions the body is in, and the same thing is true for bones.
Where Are All the Bones?
Although many people believe that bones never break down, when you think about it logically, that would be impossible. After all the hundreds of millions of years of life on this planet (in which humans have only been around for a minute fraction), if bones never decayed, they would be everywhere!
Fortunately, bones aren’t that different from our flesh and blood. We think of bones as solid and firm parts of our skeleton, that can snap like a piece of chalk when we are injured badly. The truth is that bones are living tissues, just like our other organ systems, containing blood vessels and nerves. Bones are largely composed of collagen, which creates a strong porous matrix, rather than a solid structure. Therefore, the same chemical, physical, and micro-organic processes that break down tissues will also cause bones to decompose!
If a body is exposed to water, insects, open air, or highly acidic soil, then bacteria and fungi will be able to invade that porous network, and seek out the proteins of the collagen within the bones, which causes those bones to break down and eventually crumble to dust!
However, if a body is buried in a warm, arid climate, it is much more difficult for bacteria and fungi to survive, which makes it harder for traditional decomposition to occur. In humid conditions, bones might be broken down in a matter of a decade or so, but in a dry climate, it could take thousands of years!
Can bones stick around forever?
Some bones do manage to achieve true immortality, and you’ve probably seen dozens of them over the course of your life – most likely in museums! Fossils are bones that were so rapidly encased in sediment that air was completely shut out, making it impossible for any decomposition to occur. This is the case in volcanic eruptions, and other catastrophic events that displace large amounts of sediment in the earth.
Only an extremely small fraction of living organisms manage to be fossilized, and even then, we call them “bones”, but that isn’t actually the case. Fossils were bones that never decomposed, but over time, minerals in the surrounding materials began leeching from the living tissue, replacing living cells with rock! So, when we talk about dinosaur bones being dug up after millions of years, we’re just digging up ancient rocks that are shaped precisely as the original bones once were.
Bones that remain intact for thousands of years without remineralization (the process that turns bones into fossils) are quite rare, and the oldest ones that humans have discovered are roughly 2.8 million years old (source), and were found in Ethiopia.
The most famous examples of ancient bones remaining intact comes from Egypt, where the mysterious practice of mummification prevented bones from decomposing in certain cases. When powerful drying salts, like natron, were used to clear the body of any liquids, it prevented bacteria and fungus from starting the decomposition process. Furthermore, once the mummy was sealed in linen and a sarcophagus, the lack of oxygen and moisture prevented the breakdown of tissue and bone.
Bones do decay, just at a slower rate than other types of organic material and tissue. Based on a wide range of extrinsic and intrinsic factors, bone can last for a few months to a few geologic eras, but the truth is that nothing lasts forever.
Even fossils and mummies would eventually be pulverized or broken down over the course of millions (or even billions) of years. As they say, elbows to ashes, bones to dust!