GMO or genetically modified organisms are organisms with their DNA modified, usually by adding new or different DNA from another organism. GM crops are crops that have genes from bacteria. These genes allow the plants to either produce chemicals that can kill only insect pests, or be resistant to herbicide. Since the plants have DNA from another species, they are called transgenic crops. We grow GM crops on nearly 185 million hectares in 26 countries, including 19 developing countries. That’s roughly 12% of the global cropland. We regularly produce GM soybean, corn, cotton, alfalfa, canola, apples, papaya, potatoes, summer squash, sugar beets, and pineapple. So, what is the science behind these crops? How do we make such crops in the lab?
#GMO #geneticengineering #GMODebate
00:00 - Introduction
00:55 - What is a GMO
03:25 - Summary of how GMOs are made
04:04 - Bt, Agrobacterium and ways to make GMOs
06:51 - What happens after GMOs are made (regulatory)
07:28 - Conclusion
National Academy of Sciences Report on GMOs- https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/national-academy-of-sciences-report-on-gmos/
A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4218791/
Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development- https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2014.00155/full
Impact of genetically engineered maize on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits: a meta-analysis of 21 years of field data. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21284-2
Why We Need GMO Crops in Agriculture https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173531/
Book: Tomorrow’s Table https://cropgeneticsinnovation.ucdavis.edu/book-tomorrows-table
Genetically engineered (modified) crops (Bacillus thuringiensis crops) and the world controversy on their safety. https://ejbpc.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s41938-018-0051-2
Natural genetically modified crops: Grasses take evolutionary shortcut by borrowing genes from their neighbors https://phys.org/news/2023-10-natural-genetically-crops-grasses-evolutionary.html
Insecticidal Plants: The Tech and Safety of GM Bt Crops - https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2015/insecticidal-plants/
Does The Herbicide RoundUp® Cause Cancer? - https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2019/02/18/does-the-herbicide-roundup-cause-cancer/?sh=10ec653721b4
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