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Atomic Models: Centuries ago, people didn’t know exactly what was inside an atom, but they had some “ideas”. Around 400 BC, a Greek philosopher named Democritus came up with a theory that everything in the world was made of tiny indestructible particles called “atomos”, which means “uncuttable”. However, this theory was largely discredited by Aristotle—the original social influencer, who believed that everything on this planet was made of four elements: earth, fire, water, and air. 
The next step in atomic theory development didn’t happen for nearly 2000 years, when British chemist John Dalton conducted some experiments. Following his breakthrough, Dalton proposed that everything in the world was made up of atoms—tiny indestructible solid spheres that were unique for every element. Atoms of different elements combine to form different compounds and are rearranged during chemical reactions. 
After that, came an English physicist named J.J Thompson and his trusty cathode ray tube. He proposed the famous “plum pudding” model. This model characterizes an atom as a particle that is composed of a positively charged mass (the pudding), as well as tiny negative charges embedded in it (like plums). After this, another chemist called Rutherford proposed his model of an atom where most of the atom’s mass was concentrated in a positively charged center (which he later named the nucleus) around which the electrons orbited like planets around the sun. After Rutherford, another chemist Neils Bohr theorized that if an electron jumped to a lower energy orbit, it would give out the extra energy in the form of radiation, thereby maintaining atomic stability. Even though Bohr’s model doesn’t hold true for complex multi-electron systems, this model is still the most popular representation of atomic structure in most textbooks.



#atomicmodels #science #animation


References

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast123/lectures/lec04.html
https://web.ics.purdue.edu/~kdickson/democritus.html
http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/FonF/Dalton.html
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18175369/#:~:text=In%201803%20Dalton%20discovered%20that,for%20his%20incipient%20atomic%20ideas.
https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/chemistry/chapter/evolution-of-atomic-theory/
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dp13at.html



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Atomic Models: Centuries ago, people didn’t know exactly what was inside an atom, but they had some “ideas”. Around 400 BC, a Greek philosopher named Democritus came up with a theory that everything in the world was made of tiny indestructible particles called “atomos”, which means “uncuttable”. However, this theory was largely discredited by Aristotle—the original social influencer, who believed that everything on this planet was made of four elements: earth, fire, water, and air.
The next step in atomic theory development didn’t happen for nearly 2000 years, when British chemist John Dalton conducted some experiments. Following his breakthrough, Dalton proposed that everything in the world was made up of atoms—tiny indestructible solid spheres that were unique for every element. Atoms of different elements combine to form different compounds and are rearranged during chemical reactions.
After that, came an English physicist named J.J Thompson and his trusty cathode ray tube. He proposed the famous “plum pudding” model. This model characterizes an atom as a particle that is composed of a positively charged mass (the pudding), as well as tiny negative charges embedded in it (like plums). After this, another chemist called Rutherford proposed his model of an atom where most of the atom’s mass was concentrated in a positively charged center (which he later named the nucleus) around which the electrons orbited like planets around the sun. After Rutherford, another chemist Neils Bohr theorized that if an electron jumped to a lower energy orbit, it would give out the extra energy in the form of radiation, thereby maintaining atomic stability. Even though Bohr’s model doesn’t hold true for complex multi-electron systems, this model is still the most popular representation of atomic structure in most textbooks.



#atomicmodels #science #animation


References

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast123/lectures/lec04.html
https://web.ics.purdue.edu/~kdickson/democritus.html
http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/FonF/Dalton.html
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18175369/#:~:text=In%201803%20Dalton%20discovered%20that,for%20his%20incipient%20atomic%20ideas.
https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/chemistry/chapter/evolution-of-atomic-theory/
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dp13at.html



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YouTube Video VVVjTjNJdUlBUjZGbjc0RldNUWY2bEZBLnY0OHU4aGpxTkJV

What Are The Different Atomic Models? Dalton, Rutherford, Bohr and Heisenberg Models Explained

Science ABC views September 8, 2021 4:30 pm

The limbic system is the term for various parts of the brain involved in emotions such as fear, aggression, and attraction, and behaviors related to these emotions, as well as memory, learning, and senses. The four important parts of the limbic system are the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus, and the thalamus. 

The olfactory system and the thalamus.
For most senses such as touch and sight, sensory neurons make their first stop at the thalamus and then make their way to other parts of the brain. But, for the sense of smell, the olfactory neurons from the nose make their first stop at the olfactory bulb in the brain. There is some evidence (sources included in the references) that from the olfactory cortex, neurons make their way to the thalamus (the mediothamalic nuclei) for higher sensory processing. 



#science #animation #limbicsystem


References:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917081/
http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30453/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5310631/
https://www.intechopen.com/books/hypothalamus-in-health-and-diseases/anatomy-and-function-of-the-hypothalamus
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4585119/
https://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/20/5257




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The limbic system is the term for various parts of the brain involved in emotions such as fear, aggression, and attraction, and behaviors related to these emotions, as well as memory, learning, and senses. The four important parts of the limbic system are the amygdala, the hippocampus, the hypothalamus, and the thalamus.

The olfactory system and the thalamus.
For most senses such as touch and sight, sensory neurons make their first stop at the thalamus and then make their way to other parts of the brain. But, for the sense of smell, the olfactory neurons from the nose make their first stop at the olfactory bulb in the brain. There is some evidence (sources included in the references) that from the olfactory cortex, neurons make their way to the thalamus (the mediothamalic nuclei) for higher sensory processing.



#science #animation #limbicsystem


References:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917081/
http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30453/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5310631/
https://www.intechopen.com/books/hypothalamus-in-health-and-diseases/anatomy-and-function-of-the-hypothalamus
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4585119/
https://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/20/5257




SUBSCRIBE to get more such science videos!
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcN3IuIAR6Fn74FWMQf6lFA?sub_confirmation=1

Follow us on Twitter!
https://twitter.com/abc_science

Follow us on Facebook!
https://facebook.com/sciabc

Follow our Website!
https://www.scienceabc.com

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YouTube Video VVVjTjNJdUlBUjZGbjc0RldNUWY2bEZBLnlZVUltbWNxLWJj

Emotions and the Brain: What is the limbic system?

Science ABC 4.1K views July 26, 2021 4:16 pm

Why Is It A Bad Idea To Stay In Bed For Too Long?

ScienceABC II 196 views June 29, 2021 12:31 pm